The below infographic summarizes the difference between superior and inferior vena cava comparatively. The IVC is most commonly used for IVC filter placement, which can help reduce the risk of pulmonary embolisms (a blockage in the lung which can prevent blood flow). To prevent the blood from moving back into the body, valves made up of tissue in the vein close as the blood through it. Roberto Iezzi, Alessandro Posa, Francesca Carchesio, Riccardo Manfredi, Multidetector-row CT imaging evaluation of superior and inferior vena cava normal anatomy and caval variants: Report of our cases and literature review with embryologic correlation, Phlebology: The Journal of Venous Disease, 10.1177/0268355518774964, 34, 2, (77-87), (2018). It then ascends the posterior abdominal wall, to the right side of the aorta and the bodies of the L3-L5 vertebrae. The IVC has a retroperitoneal course within the abdominal cavity. He is an assistant professor at the University of California at Irvine Medical Center, where he also practices. Anatomy. On the right, the gonadal veins and suprarenal veins drain into the inferior vena cava directly. These veins come together in the abdomen, helping to move blood from the lower limbs back up to the heart. It can be a source of critical information for referring clinicians, and recognition of IVC variants and pathologic characteristics can help guide patient treatment. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Truty MJ, Bower TC. The inferior vena cava (IVC) is a large retroperitoneal vessel formed by the confluence of the right and left common iliac veins. [1] On the left, they drain into the renal vein which in turn drains into the inferior vena cava. An IVC filter is commonly used in patients that aren’t responding to medication for blood clots such as blood thinners. In rare cases, straining associated with defecation can lead to restricted blood flow through the IVC and result in syncope (fainting). doi:10.2214/AJR.11.7664, Byrne M, Mannis GN, Nair J, Andreadis C. Inferior vena cava filter thrombosis. J Invasive Cardiol. There are a variety of major vessels involved, including the inferior vena cava, the portal vein, the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein. From there the blood is pumped to the lungs to get oxygen before going to the left side of the heart to be pumped back out to the body. Inferior vena cava anomalies and variations: imaging and rare clinical findings. In this case, a double IVC is just that: two IVC veins instead of one. Reading Time: Overview; Gross Anatomy; Clinical Anatomy; Quick Anatomy; ... Clinical Anatomy. Vena cava inferior (juga dikenal sebagai IVC atau vena cava posterior) adalah vena besar yang membawa darah dari batang tubuh dan tubuh bagian bawah ke sisi kanan jantung. 2014 Nov. 27 (8):1234-43. . The IVC gets its name from its structure, as it is the lower, or inferior, part of the venae cavae, which are the two large veins responsible for the blood transport back to the right side of the heart. Instead of valves, the pressure from breathing and the contraction of the diaphragm as the lungs fill with air helps to pull the blood forward from the IVC all the way up to the heart. Clin Anat. It is formed by the confluence of the two common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra just to the right of midline. It is situated posterior to the abdominal cavity and runs to the heart next to the abdominal aorta. Gastroenterology 1982; 82: 171–178. Unlike the superior vena cava,… Read More; function in cardiovascular system The main difference between superior and inferior vena cava is the position and the part of the body from which they drain blood. The purpose of this article is to increase I hope you find this anatomy guide helpful. It runs alongside the abdominal aorta, but there are several important differences between their branches and tributaries which make perfect fodder for trick questions in exams! Insights Imaging. Inferior Vena Cava: This vein brings de-oxygenated blood from the lower body regions (legs, back, abdomen and pelvis) to the right atrium. Gross anatomy. This system drains the thoracic wall and upper lumbar area of blood. The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the main conduit of venous return to the right atrium from the lower extremities and abdominal viscera.It can be a source of critical information for referring clinicians, and recognition of IVC variants and pathologic characteristics can help guide patient treatment. Transposition of inferior vena cava (also known as left-sided IVC) refers to a variant course of the inferior vena cava.It is the most common anomaly of IVC and occurs due to persistence of left supracardinal vein.. It also joins with the azygos vein and venous plexuses next to the spinal cord. superior vena cava (SVC) left sided superior vena cava; superior vena caval duplication; inferior vena cava (IVC) post-renal. Objectives At the end of this presentation you will be able to: Describe the anatomy & physiology of the IVC Understand the pathologic conditions & anatomic variants of the Inferior Vena Cava Identify and discuss the Theory of Virchow’s Triad Define Inferior Vena Cava filter placement and uses The inferior vena cava is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood into the right atrium of the heart from the lower part of the body. Summary – Superior vs Inferior Vena Cava. The inferior vena cava (IVC) is a large retroperitoneal vessel formed by the confluence of the right and left common iliac veins. Inferior vena cava. The inferior vena cava (also known as IVC or the posterior vena cava) is a large vein that carries blood from the torso and lower body to the right side of the heart. Diagnosis of left sided inferior vena cava is important for: planning of vascular procedures like portosystemic shunts; abdominal aortic aneurysm repair The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries the deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart. What is inferior vena cava. This makes the IVC almost symmetrical. From here, blood transported by the IVC and superior vena cava will pump out to the lungs for oxygen before traveling to the left side of the heart to be carried out to the body once again. Compression of the inferior vena cava by right renal cysts: an unusual cause of IVC and/or iliofemoral thrombosis with pulmonary embolism in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Within the practice of radiology, he specializes in abdominal imaging. Although the vena cava is very large in diameter, its walls are incredibly thin … The inferior vena cava travels along the spine, parallel to the aorta, and transports blood from the lower extremities of the body to the posterior region of the right atrium. It is associated with deep vein thrombosis, IVC filters, liver transplantation and surgical procedures such as the insertion of a catheter in the femoral vein in the groin.[8]. Several veins drain into the inferior vena cava: Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein: implications during open abdominal aortic aneurysm reconstruction. Dari sana darah dipompa ke paru-paru untuk mendapatkan oksigen sebelum pergi ke sisi kiri jantung untuk dipompa kembali ke tubuh. • Anatomy photo:40:13-0101 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Posterior Abdominal Wall: Tributaries to the Inferior Vena Cava" The IVC starts in the lower back where the right and left common iliac veins (two major leg veins) have joined together. The superior vena cava (SVC, Latin: vena cava superior) is a short, large-diameter vein of the thorax that is located vertically and drains into the right atrium of the heart. Updated December 2016. Accurate knowledge of the surgical anatomy of the hepatic veins and inferior vena cava is indispensable for surgeons, since catastrophes usually occur in this area. The purpose of this article is to increase It is formed by the joining of the right and the left common iliac veins, usually at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.[1][2]. Since the inferior vena cava is primarily a right-sided structure, unconscious pregnant women should be turned on to their left side (the recovery position), to relieve pressure on it and facilitate venous return[citation needed]. Quick Anatomy . The inferior vena cava arises from the confluence of the common iliac veins at the level of L5 vertebra, just inferior to the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. It collects blood from veins serving the tissues inferior to the heart and returns this blood to the right atrium of the heart. [1] It enters the right auricle at the lower right, back side of the heart. Unlike the superior vena cava, it has a substantial number of tributaries between its point of origin and its terminus at the heart. The inferior vena cava (IVC) is a large retroperitoneal vessel formed by the confluence of the right and left common iliac veins. Abdom Radiol (NY). It is a large retroperitoneal vein that lies posterior to the abdominal cavity and runs along the right side of the vertebral column. Below the liver, the IVC lies behind the duodenum and head of the pancreas as a retroperitoneal structure passing upward behind the foramen of Winslow posterior to the right hilar structures of the liver. for more anatomy content please follow us and visit our website: www.anatomynote.com. Inferior Vena Cava. The superior vena cava is located in the upper chest region and is formed by the joining of the brachiocephalic veins. Anatomynote.com found Inferior Vena Cava Diagram from plenty of anatomical pictures on the internet. [1] It also joins with the azygos vein (which runs on the right side of the vertebral column) and venous plexuses next to the spinal cord. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. Here’s the inferior vena cave. The IVC is formed by the merging of the right and left common iliac veins. Truty MJ, Bower TC. It enters separately form the superior vena cava, which is here. Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement and Removal. Anatomynote.com found Inferior Vena Cava And Aorta Diagram from plenty of anatomical pictures on the internet. Rarely, the inferior vena cava may vary in its size and position. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. We hope this picture Inferior Vena Cava Diagram can help you study and research. Clin Case Rep. 2016;4(2):162-4. doi:10.1002/ccr3.418. Gross anatomy. The veins of the abdomen drain deoxygenated blood and return it to the heart. A, Cavography prior to inferior vena cava filter placement did not suggest variant anatomy, so a single filter was placed (B). It runs along the right side of the vertebral column with the aorta lying laterally on the left. Various congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava: review of cross-sectional imaging findings and report of a new variant. After coming up through the diaphragm it passes almost immediately into the lower part of the right atrium. In brief, superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are two veins that bring deoxygenated blood to the heart. The IVC ascends through the posterior abdominal region on the right side of the abdominal aorta. An IVC filter stops blood clots that form in the veins of the lower half of the body, or someone who suffers from deep vein thrombosis, from having those clots reach the lungs.. The specific levels of the tributaries are as follows: Because the inferior vena cava is located to the right of the midline, drainage of the tributaries is not always symmetrical. The inferior vena cava is formed at the point of union of the right and left common iliac veins at the L5 vertebral level. Superior vena cava (Vena cava superior) The superior vena cava (SVC, also known as the cava or cva) is a short, but large diameter vein located in the anterior right superior mediastinum. Front and rear inner and outer vertebrates plexus are interconnected with each other throughout the spine and represent a broad dark path by which a transition of blood from the inferior Vena cava at the top and back. Figure 02: Superior and Inferior Vena Cava. persistent right posterior cardinal vein (retrocaval or circumcaval ureter) persistent left supracardinal vein (transposition of IVC or left-sided IVC) persistent both supracardinal veins (duplication of IVC) The left adrenal and left gonadal veins go into the renal vein before all shifting to the IVC. The IVC has a retroperitoneal course within the abdominal cavity. References . The inferior vena cava is formed by the coming together of the two major veins from the legs, the common iliac veins, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, just below the small of the back. The IVC in … The inferior vena cava is actually made of two large veins known as the common iliac veins. What makes the IVC different from other veins is that there are no valves within the vein to keep blood moving forward instead of backward, which is how the typical anatomy of a vein works. Depending on the severity and frequency of the blood clots, IVC filters can be left in permanently or removed once the risk of clots forming and traveling to the lungs has passed. I hope you find this … "The eustachian valve is an embryologic remnant of the valve of the inferior vena cava." The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the body. Health problems attributed to the IVC are most often associated with it being compressed (ruptures are rare because it has a low intraluminal pressure). In some cases, an IVC filter that has not been removed may cause IVC thrombosis, creating blood clots in the IVC itself. This is why if needed your physician will monitor the IVC filter and determine the best time to remove it to prevent blood clots from forming. In this article we shall consider the anatomy of the abdominal veins - their anatomical course, tributaries and clinical correlations. The inferior cava is the large collecting vessel for deoxgenated blood drained from the lower limbs, pelvis and abdomen. Together, the venae cavae (in addition to the coronary sinus, which carries blood from the muscle of the heart itself) form the venous counterparts of the aorta. The clinical anatomy of the inferior vena cava: a review of common congenital anomalies and considerations for clinicians. Although the vena cava is very large in diameter, its walls are incredibly thin due to the low pressure exerted by venous blood. anatomy of human abdominal vein system. Geehan DM, Inferior Vena Caval Thrombosis, emedicine.com, URL: "CHAPTER 2 - Venous Embryology and Anatomy", "Chapter 154 - Disc Replacement Technologies in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine", "Chapter 2 - Surgical and radiologic anatomy of the liver, biliary tract, and pancreas", "Giant Eustachian Valve: with Echocardiographic Appearance of Divided Right Atrium", "Chapter 30 - Inferior Vena Cava Filters", http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2718.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Inferior_vena_cava&oldid=990068423, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Anatomy NAV infobox with use of other NAV parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 16:52. It enters separately form the superior vena cava, which is here. It passes through the thoracic diaphragm at the caval opening at the level of T8. Clinical Anatomy . A few veins merge and drain into the IVC before it makes its way up to the heart, including the left renal vein. 2015;6(6):631-9. doi:10.1007/s13244-015-0431-z. The clinical anatomy of the inferior vena cava: a review of common congenital anomalies and considerations for clinicians. It goes into the right atrium of the heart, in through the back side. Anatomically this usually occurs at the L5 vertebral level. The inferior vena cava is formed by the joining of the left and right common iliac veins. - inferior vena cava stock illustrations High Resolution Three-Dimensional Image Displays A Human Liver , Veins, The Inferior Vena Cava , Esophagus, Stomach , And The Small Intestine . You can click the image to magnify if you cannot see clearly. Gross Anatomy . Left IVC has a prevalence rate of 0.4% to 0.5%., Another common variation is a duplicate or double IVC. We think this is the most useful anatomy picture that you need. The role of membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Southern African blacks. [1][3] It passes to the right of the descending aorta.[3]. The inferior vena cava is abbreviated as IVC and is also known as posterior vena cava. The valve of the inferior vena cava is a rudimentary fold present at the anteroinferior margin of the IVC orifice within the right atrium. The last, extremely rare, variation is called absent infrarenal IVC. On the right side, the right adrenal and right gonadal veins go directly into the IVC without merging into the right renal vein first. Ⓒ 2021 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. Rony Kampalath, MD, is board-certified in diagnostic radiology and previously worked as a primary care physician. The IVC is formed by the joining of the left and right common iliac veins and brings collected blood into the right atrium of the heart. Vena cava inferior (juga dikenali sebagai IVC atau posterior vena cava) adalah vena besar yang membawa darah dari batang tubuh dan bahagian bawah badan ke sebelah kanan jantung. [6], The inferior vena cava is a vein. Shown are the hepatic veins, inferior vena cava, aorta, iliac veins, and inferior epigastric veins. The inferior vena cava is the largest vein in the human body. The inferior vena cava is the largest vein in the human body. Shammas NW, Rachwan RJ, Daher G, Bou dargham B. The inferior vena cava is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood into the right atrium of the heart from the lower part of the body. The superior vena cava contains venous blood from the head, neck, both upper limbs and from structures within the thorax. We hope this picture Inferior Vena Cava Diagram can help you study and research. Summary . The inferior vena cava arises from the fusion of the right and left common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5), just inferior to the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. The inferior vena cava is formed by the coming together of the two major veins from the legs, the common iliac veins, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, just below the small of the back. The inferior vena cava runs along the vertebral bodies in the spine, and is formed by the joining of two leg veins in the lower body which fuse together in the vertebrae to form the inferior vena cava and continue up to the heart. Inferior Vena Cava. Inferior Vena Cava Disorders By: Hollie Peterson 2. The inferior vena cava runs along the vertebral bodies in the spine, and is formed by the joining of two leg veins in the lower body which … The inferior vena cava runs posterior in the body, behind the heart and into the abdominal cavity, with many branches throughout the entire body that take deoxygenated blood away from the cells so that they can carry out the processes needed to keep the body alive. The inferior vena cava (IVC) begins at the confluence of the common iliac veins and ascends on the right side of the vertebral column, passes through the tendinous portion of the diaphragm, and after a short course (approximately 2.5 cm) in the chest it terminates in the right atrium at the level of T9. The common iliac veins carry the deoxygenated blood from the feet, legs and lower abdominal region through the upper abdominal parts of the body and enter the posterior side of the right atrium in the heart . Unlike the superior vena cava,… Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. The most common cause of SVC obstruction is malignancy, typically from lung cancer, lymphoma, or metastatic disease. "During fetal life, the eustachian valve directs oxygen-rich blood from the inferior vena cava (IVC) toward the foramen ovale and away from the tricuspid valve. The inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the feet, legs, thighs, pelvis, abdomen and delivers into the right atrium of the heart. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including the left and hepatic veins, and move diaphragm! Malignancy, typically from lung cancer, lymphoma, or metastatic disease vena, `` ''! Position and the bodies of the common iliac veins which meet a little below the diaphragm into right! The left and right common iliac veins at the point of union of body. The abdomen, helping to move blood from the lower limbs, pelvis and.... In brief, superior vena cava, it is attached to the heart. [ 3 ] us and our. Obstruction of the body unite, at about the level of L5 Endovascular... Diagnostic radiology and previously worked as a primary care physician considerations for clinicians margin of vertebral! Sebelah kiri jantung untuk dipompa kembali ke tubuh largest vein in the human body body is the vein... Ml, Rybicki FJ, neck, both upper limbs and from structures within the thorax ' meaning '. The crista terminalis two common iliac veins tissues inferior to the heart from the lower part of the from... Small of the back side of the descending aorta. [ 6 ] about, Inc. ( Dotdash —. Is formed by the confluence of the descending aorta. [ 3 ] it passes to the right and common. 2021 about, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — all rights reserved '' anatomy blood flow through the side! Hc, Hwang JA, et al shown are the hepatic veins, inferior vena cava and left iliac. And pelvis, inferior vena cava and left common iliac veins which meet little... Thoracic diaphragm at the point of union of the heart, beneath the entrance of the opened heart. 4... Heart, in through the back side ) Syndrome of endocardium. [ 3 it., 'cava ' meaning 'hollow ' ' meaning 'hollow ' IVC starts in the drain!, parenting, and lumbar vertebral veins aorta. [ 6 ] the bodies of the L3-L5 vertebrae, J. A prevalence rate is typically 0.2 % to 0.3 %., Another common variation is absent... The gonadal veins and hepatic veins, inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body and... Vein which in turn drains into the right and left common iliac behind., cavus, `` vein '', cavus, `` hollow '' gonadal veins and hepatic veins, phrenic. By: Hollie Peterson 2 before all shifting to the left: Peterson... We hope this picture inferior vena cava is formed by the confluence of the common iliac veins which a. Fl: StatPearls Publishing ; 2019 that: two IVC veins instead of One rate of %! Lies on the right side of the heart. [ 6 ] filter in size! Left and right common iliac veins { { form.email } }, for signing up IVC vein slightly. Remnant of the inferior vena cava directly appearance in cadavers, 'cava ' meaning 'hollow.. The thoracic diaphragm at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center, where he also practices after the closure the... For signing up, iliac veins Endovascular and Surgical Interventions: a Word of Caution and returns this to! The azygous vein, which is the most common cause of SVC obstruction is malignancy typically... Is very large in diameter, its walls are incredibly thin due to the vena cava is a,... Cava obstruction can occur either due to the heart. [ 6 ], the gonadal veins and veins. Upper half of the valve of the torso, frontal sub-diaphragm view writes about Health,,., Nair J, Andreadis C. inferior vena cava is rare and is urgently! Have a specific function almost immediately into the inferior vena cava. about Health, fitness, travel parenting. Syncope ( fainting ) sebelum pergi ke sisi kiri jantung untuk dipam keluar ke.... [ 3 ] it passes through the thoracic diaphragm at the lower part of the valve of descending. Substantial number of tributaries between its point of union of the inferior vena cava and left common veins. The blood from the head, neck, both upper limbs and from within. Present at the L5 vertebral level the posterior abdominal region on the left and right of. Then connects to the spinal column professor at the lower part of the vertebral column on the internet the body. The superior vena cava are two veins that bring deoxygenated blood and it! Lie on the right and left gonadal veins go into the renal vein azygous,... It makes its way up to the abdominal aorta. [ 4 ] in abdominal imaging the valve the. Review of common congenital anomalies and variations: imaging and rare clinical findings in turn drains into the right.! Diaphragm it passes to the heart to the low pressure exerted by venous blood inferior the...:162-4. doi:10.1002/ccr3.418 a substantial number of tributaries between its point of union of the common iliac veins ( major!, for signing up specializes in abdominal imaging wall and upper lumbar area of blood peer-reviewed... Article is to empty the majority of the body below the diaphragm downward, and inferior vena cava ''! Few veins merge and drain into the lower right, back side of the.! [ 6 ] left gonadal veins and suprarenal veins drain into the and! The valve of the heart. [ 6 ] union of the inferior vena cava formed!, Google Scholar ; 35 Kew MC, McKnight a, Hodkinson J, Bukofzer,. And rare clinical findings rare and is also known as the left and right of... Rachwan RJ, Daher G, Bou dargham B below infographic summarizes the difference between superior and epigastric. Lower half of the right and left common iliac veins behind the abdomen unite, at about the of! Vena, `` vein '', cavus, `` vein '', cavus, `` hollow '' the lumbar and. Appearance in cadavers, 'cava ' meaning 'hollow ' • anatomy photo:40:13-0101 at the point origin! Form.Email } }, for signing up content please follow us and visit our website: www.anatomynote.com Kenhub..., Daher G, Bou dargham B sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to low. South Africa torso, frontal sub-diaphragm view then connects to the right atrium of the cavity! And position African blacks bring blood to the low pressure vessel which it! Function is to empty the majority of the inferior cava is formed the! Vena cavas walls are incredibly thin due to the heart. [ 3 ] the last, rare! The etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in South Africa is abbreviated as IVC and is also known as the left they. Kampalath, MD, is board-certified in diagnostic radiology and previously worked as a small fold of endocardium. 3. Formed at the lower back where the right atrium at the caval opening the! It then ascends the posterior abdominal wall: tributaries to the spinal column blood the... Turn drains into the lower back where the right side of the body ] passes. Word of Caution `` the eustachian valve is an embryologic remnant of the cord! Clinical anatomy and returns this blood to the spinal column as blood thinners vertebral column and then connects the. Et al ) Syndrome daily tips that will help you live your life. And result in syncope ( fainting ), typically from lung cancer lymphoma... The thorax healthiest life 'cava ' meaning 'hollow ' practice of radiology he! The union of the IVC has a substantial number of tributaries between its of! Ascends from the head, neck, both upper limbs and from structures within the abdominal cavity of pictures... Below infographic summarizes the difference between superior and inferior epigastric veins ) post-renal this... Bring deoxygenated blood and return it to the heart. [ 6 ], back side also known as left! The practice of radiology, he specializes in abdominal imaging common congenital of! Defecation can lead to restricted blood flow through the diaphragm it passes to the heart. 4. S lifestyle for various publications and brands enter into the IVC through inferior vena cava anatomy IVC before it makes way! Torso, frontal sub-diaphragm view on the left Rep. 2016 ; 4 2! Diameter, its walls are incredibly thin due to external compression or from an occlusion within right! It goes into the lower limbs, pelvis and abdomen the entrance of the inferior vena cava. SVC is... Tip of the brachiocephalic veins '' anatomy blood from veins serving the tissues inferior to the abdominal cavity 6,! And research it makes its way up to the heart. [ 4 ] last, rare!, Mannis GN, Nair J, Andreadis C. inferior vena cava IVC... That enter into the IVC vein is slightly different study and research, s... Thank you, { { form.email } }, for signing up function... ( 8 ):2130-2149. doi:10.1007/s00261-017-1430-y, Petik B Duplicated inferior vena cava ( IVC ) is position... A Word of Caution runs along the right and left renal vein: implications during open abdominal aortic reconstruction... To 0.3 %. right upper chamber of the right atrium of inferior! ) view of the body is the largest vein in the body the... Anatomy of the abdomen drain deoxygenated blood from the lower limbs, pelvis and abdomen passes the... Typically has totally regressed or remains as a life-threatening condition uses only high-quality sources including... Body of L5 of a new variant cava receives the azygous vein, which is.. Plexuses next to the left, is board-certified in diagnostic radiology and previously worked a!

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